What is the Democracy || Public will || Definition, Development.

What is the Democracy || Public will || Definition, Development.

What is the Democracy: Majoritarianism and public will

In this article we will discuss the most searching keyword and article i.e "What is the Democracy" "What is Majoritarianism" also as "Public Will"

Kofi Annan

No one is born a good citizen, no nation is born a democracy. Rather, both are processes that continue to evolve over a lifetime. Young people must be included from birth. 

What is Democracy?

"Of the people, by the people, for the people" Abraham Lincoln

The word democracy comes from the Greek words "demos", meaning people, and "kratos" meaning power; so democracy can be thought of as "power of the people": a way of governing which depends on the will of the people.

There are so many different models of democratic government around the world that it is sometimes easier to understand the idea of democracy in terms of what it definitely is not. Democracy is not autocracy or dictatorship, where one person rules; and it is not oligarchy, where a small group/segment of society rules. Properly understood, democracy should not even be "rule of the majority", if that means that minorities' interests are ignored completely than there have no democracy. A democracy, at least in theory, is government on behalf of all the people, according to their "will" .so democracy is the public will.

Rule of majority

Majoritarian democracy, as opposed to constitutional democracy, refers to democracy based upon majority rule of a society's citizens. Majoritarian democracy is the conventional form of democracy used as a political system in many countries.

Though common, majoritarian democracy is not universally accepted – majoritarian democracy was famously criticized as having the inherent danger of becoming a "tyranny of the majority" whereby the majority in society could oppress or exclude minority groups, which can lead to violence and civil war. Some argue that since parliament, statutes and preparatory works are very important in majoritarian democracies, and considering the absence of a tradition to exercise judicial review at the national level, majoritarian democracies are undemocratic.

In contrast to majoritarian democracy and the considered danger of a tyranny of the majority, consensus democracy was developed in response that emphasizes rule by as many people as possible to make government inclusive, with a majority of support from society merely being a minimal portal. 

Fascism

Fascism rejects majoritarian democracy because the latter assumes equality of citizens and fascists claim that fascism is a form of authoritarian democracy that represents the views of a dynamic organized minority of a nation rather than the disorganized majority. 

There are two problems that are more complexes connected to the notion of representative democracy, and these concern minority interests. The first problem is that minority interests are often not represented through the electoral system, this may happen if their numbers are too less to reach the level necessary for any representation. The second problem is that even if their numbers are represented in the legislative body, they will have a minority of representatives and these may not be able to summon up the necessary votes to defeat the majority representatives. For these reasons, democracy is often referred to as "rule of the majority".

Majority Rule

Majority rule, if not backed up by a guarantee of human rights for all, can lead to decisions which are harmful to minorities, and the fact that these decisions are the "will of the people" can provide no justification. The basic interests of minorities as well as majorities need to be safeguarded in any democratic system by adherence to human rights principles, reinforced by an effective legal mechanism, whatever the will of the majority may be.

Let’s consider a core elements of what constitutes a democracy—public will, equality amongst citizens and democratic norms and values. Democracy is essentially the idea that political authority resides at the level of the individual. In this sense, a political community derives its supreme power and authority from the consent of the people within that community. Individuals may hold the sovereign right of political rule in a democratic country, but it is majoritarian right—no one individual can claim absolute sovereign power and authority, some individuals may have greater political power. In a majoritarian democracy, typically wield political power on behalf of majority and majority may have greater political power relative to other minorities. But if we define majority as the absolute authority and supreme power of political rule, democratic majority is not reserved for particular groups or individuals but rather a general right dispersed at the level of individuals within a political community.

In public will 

is that there should have political equality among citizens. Citizenship is a legal status that confers onto an individual the formal recognition that they are a member of a sovereign state. Non-democratic societies still have citizens, of course, but those citizens do not enjoy political rights associated with determining who should exercise political power. Citizens in non-democratic societies may still have rights, particularly compared to non-citizens in those societies, but political rights are generally very limited or absent. Equality amongst citizens is a democratic ideal, but in reality this equality may be limited, incomplete, or inadequate, even in what is generally considered to be a democratic political community. 

The idea of democracy derives its moral strength – and popular appeal – from two key principles

  • Individual autonomy

The idea that no-one should be subject to rules which have been imposed by others. People should be able to control their own lives by own will (within reason).

  •  Equality

 The idea that everyone should have the same opportunity to influence the decisions that affect people in society.

These principles are possibly attractive and they help to explain why democracy is so popular. Of course we feel it is fair that we should have as much chance as anyone else to decide on common rules!

The problems arise when we consider how the principles can be put into practice, because we need a mechanism for deciding how to deal with conflicting issues and matters. Because it offers a simple mechanism in which democracy tends to be "rule of the majority"; but rule of the majority can mean that some people's interests are never represented. A more genuine way of representing everyone's interests is to use decision making by consensus, where the aim is to find common points of interest as common will.

Alber Camus

“Democracy is not the law of the majority, but the protection of the minority”

The development of democracy

  • Ancient history

The ancient Greeks are credited with creating the very first democracy, although there were almost certainly earlier examples of primitive democracy in other parts of the world. The Greek model was established in the 5th century BC, in the city of Athens. Among a sea of autocracies and oligarchies – which were the normal forms of government at the time – Athenian democracy stood out.

However, compared to how we understand democracy today, the Athenian model had two important differences:

Theirs was a form of direct democracy – in other words, instead of electing representatives to govern on the people's behalf, "the people" themselves met, discussed questions of government, and then implemented policy.

Such a system was possible partly or a portion because "the people" was a very limited category. Those who could participate directly were a small part of the population, since women, slaves, aliens – and of course, children – were excluded. The numbers who participated were still far more than in a modern democracy: perhaps 50,000 males engaged directly in politics, out of a population of around 300,000 people.

Democracy in the modern world

Today there are as many different forms of democracy as there are democratic nations in the world. No two systems are exactly the same and no one system can be taken as a "model". There are presidential and parliamentary democracies, democracies that are federal or unitary, democracies that use a proportional voting system, and ones that use a majoritarian system, democracies which are also monarchies, and so on.

One thing that unites modern systems of democracy, and which also distinguishes them from the ancient model, is the use of representatives of the people. Instead of taking part directly in law making, modern democracies use elections to select representatives who are sent by the people to govern on their behalf. Such a system is known as representative democracy. It can lay some claim to being "democratic" because it is, at least to some degree, based on the two principles above: equality of all (one person – one vote), and the right of every individual to some degree of personal autonomy.

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