Socialization and Crime | How Socialization and Crime influence each other ?

Socialization and Crime | How Socialization and Crime influence each other ?

Socialization and Crime

Socialization and crime according to Social process theory

Socialization and Crime || Social process theories suggest criminality is a function of socialization any person regardless of race, class or gender can become criminal. Elements of family, peer group, school, and church contribute to socialization processes

Family Relations

Family plays a critical role in the determinant of behaviour. Parental efficacy refers to supportive parents who effectively control their children. Links between inconsistent discipline and delinquency.

Child Abuse and Crime

Linkage between child abuse, neglect, sexual abuse, and crime. Children subjected to abuse are more likely to use violence in personal interactions. In nonviolent societies, parents rarely punish children physically.

Educational Experience

Children who fail in school offend more frequently than those who succeed. Schools contribute to delinquency by labelling Students School dropouts have a significant chance of entering a criminal Career.2003 national survey estimates about 1.5 million violent incidents occur in public schools each year.

Peer Relations

Children seek out peer groups between the ages of 8 and 14. Peer Rejection: Children rejected by peers are more likely to display aggressive behaviour. Pro-social friends may inhibit criminality. Anti-social peer groups increase the likelihood of delinquency Mark Warr suggests delinquent friends tend to be “sticky” meaning they are not easily lost once they are acquired.

Institutional Involvement and Belief

Religion binds people together Travis Hirschi and Rodney Stark found the association between religion attendance, belief, and delinquency is insignificant recent research contends that attending religious services is a significant inhibitor of crime.

  • Socialization and crime according to Social learning theory

The Effects of Socialization on Crime

Social learning theory suggests people learn techniques of crimes from criminal peers. Social control theory contends people are controlled by their bonds to society. Social reaction theory argues that society contributes to criminality through the use of labels

Differential Association Theory

Differential Association: Edwin H. Sutherland’s view that criminality is a function of the socialization process Criminal behavior is learned. Learning is a by-product of interacting with others. Learning criminal behavior occurs within intimate personal groups. Learning criminal behavior involves assimilating the techniques of committing crime, including motives, drives, rationalizations, and attitudes.

The specific direction is learned from perceptions of various aspects of the legal code as favorable or unfavorable. A person becomes criminal when perceiving the consequences of violating the law as favorable. The process of learning criminal behavior involves the same Mechanisms as any other learning process Criminal behavior and noncriminal behavior express the same needs and values.

Differential Reinforcement Theory

Ronald Akers suggests “direct conditioning” occurs when behaviour is reinforced by rewards or punishment. People evaluate their own behaviour through their interactions with significant others and groups in their lives. Once people are indoctrinated into crime, their behaviour can be reinforced through peers and the lack of negative sanctions

By testing Differential Reinforcement, Studies have suggested a strong association between drug and alcohol abuse and social learning variables. Deviant behaviour is reinforced over time (I.E. smoking) Parents may supply negative reinforcements to children’s deviant behaviour

All people have potential to violate the law

Self- control refers to a strong moral sense that renders a person incapable of hurting others or violating social norms. Walter Reckless argued a strong self-image insulates a person from the criminogenic influences of the environment. Howard Kaplan suggests youths with poor selfconcepts are more likely to engage in delinquent behaviour (normative groups)

Hirschi’s Social Bond Theory (social control theory)

Travis Hirschi links the onset of criminality to the weakening of the ties that bind people to society (social bonds). Attachment (sensitivity to and interest in others) Commitment (time, energy, and effort into conventional activities). Involvement (insulates people from the lure of crime). Belief (moral respect for law and social values).

Crime and Labelling Theory

Crime and deviance are defined by the social audience. Howard Becker described those making the rules as moral entrepreneurs. Social groups create deviance by labelling particular people as “outsiders”

Consequences of Labelling

Labels produce stigma. Condemnation is carried out in “ceremonies” such as trials and media attention (degradation ceremonies). Differential social control: Self-labelling involves one taking on the attitudes and roles reflected in how a person views the way others see them Joining deviant cliques: Some labelled people may join cliques and other outcast peers. Retrospective reading: refers to the reassessment of a person’s past to fit a current generalized label or status. Dramatization of evil: Labels become a personal identity.

More Info

Next Post Previous Post
No Comment
Add Comment
comment url