What is Globalization | Definition, Effects | Impacts of Globalization

Introduction

Globalization is the word used to describe the growing interdependence of the world’s economies, cultures, and populations, brought about by cross-border trade in goods and services, technology, and flows of investment, people, and information. Countries have built economic partnerships to facilitate these movements over many centuries. But the term gained popularity after the Cold War in the early 1990s, as these cooperative arrangements shaped modern every day. The wide-ranging effects of globalization are complex and politically charged. As with major technological advances, globalization benefits society as a whole.
What is Globalization | Definition, Effects | Impacts of Globalization
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Definition 

The process by which businesses or other organizations develop international influence or start operating on an international scale.

Instruments of Globalization

There are many instruments by which globalization is being promoted and enhanced. But the most important instruments influencing this process are the multinational corporations and the new revolution of information technology.

Multinational corporations

 Multinational corporations are main instruments of globalization. They possess huge capitals and assets. As profit maximizers, they establish their factors in many developing countries and their contributions to national economies in terms of taxes and employments, they influence decision-making processes in those countries. Their activities usually leave serious effects on many host economies; they even sometime create civil unrests. This is because these companies control not only markets, but also peoples.


New Information Technology, 

Which is a product of the industrial revolution, is another instrument of globalization. Its aspects, in particular the Internet and multimedia, remarkably contribute to the spread of globalization due to their rapidity, easiness and availability. In spite of its huge benefits, the revolution is still possessed and controlled by some advanced nations, which might use it as a means of cultural influence and informational hegemony.

Globalization as a Process to Reshaping Human Life

With the end of the Cold War, liberalist nations have become more interested in promoting the free trade principle, where market mechanisms must be dominant and governments must not interfere in economic activities. Not only it changes many types of lifestyles, but also involves the bridging of temporal, spatial, and cultural distances in new ways, and that these processes tend to be driven by the revolutions in transport technologies, communications, the internationalization of capital notions of the world system, and post industrialism.

Positive and Negative Effects of Globalization

The previous introduction shows that globalization has both positive and negative effects on the various aspects of human life.

Positive Effects of Globalization

There are some positive effects brought with the process of globalization:

In the education field, some of the new communication and information technologies, which are of course linked to the globalization process, have enabled students, researchers and young people in distant and to access ideas and information from the best libraries in the world. They are able to peruse through libraries in different countries without having to travel. Globalization from this point of view assists people in the dissemination of values related to knowledge, and in the promotion of values related to health care etc.

Globalization has made communication much easier and cheaper than before. The number of subscribers and users of the Internet are now increasing remarkably.

The potential for people of different communities, countries, cultures and religions to know and understand one another is greater than ever before. Knowing and understanding each others are very important to promote and establish common values among people of different communities.

Globalization also makes it possible for people to show their sympathy and compassion for the victims of natural calamities and man-made tragedies all over the world regardless of religions, lands, languages, colors, cultures etc. 

Globalization has also brought to the fore issues such as the rights of women and children.

All these aspects promote globally certain common values such as equality, human rights, justice, democracy and moral values.

Negative Effects of Globalization:

While there are some positive aspects of globalization, its negative effects are ‘overwhelming.’ It almost affects all aspects of human life.

Globalization and culture: Globalization represents a challenge to cultural and local languages. United Nations’ study shows that half of local languages in the world are expected to disappear. The dominance of English could contribute to the emergence of a global and intercontinental culture which may wipe out traditions, customs, and values of many societies and marginalizes their cultures.

Globalization has significant impact on local institutions.. In many cases this problem not only has political reflections, but also social dimensions so globalization in this sense is reshaping the identity of many peoples particularly migrants.

Globalization and developing countries: Globalization has serious effects on many developing countries:

The irresponsible behavior of some multinational corporations toward the environment of those countries, or more dangerously marketing expired products and other illegal goods are examples of this destruction. So globalization in this context changes the world to become a “global pillage instead of being a global village”.

The widening gap between the North and the South at international level, and between haves and have-nots at national level is another serous aspect of globalization. In fact, the real test to globalization is through its success in reducing the gap between the rich and the poor at local, national and global levels.

Globalization has forced many countries in various parts of this world to regulate to a lower league the most fundamental needs of their peoples. The equitable distribution of food, adequate health care facilities, and the quality of education are no longer priority concerns the political agendas of the governments in these countries.

All these indicate that poor societies in the third world not only remain far away from benefiting from globalization, but also they continue to suffer from its calamities, pitfalls and misfortunes. 

Globalization and religions: Although globalization might benefit religions through the easier exchange of information and different opinions about these religions, it however represents a source of harm to many religious and spiritual values 

Globalization and morals: The immoral character of globalization is becoming even more serious and its negative impacts in this context have different aspects:

Globalization has internationalized crimes. Drug trafficking and the trafficking of women and children have become much more difficult to control because of their international character. Not only crimes are globalized, but also disease.

Another aspect of this problem is that most users of Internet in cyberspaces are adults and they waste a lot of time using the Internet for unnecessary purposes. One of the most dangerous effects of globalization on young people is the immoral usage of the Internet. 

Globalization and international politics: The collapse of the Soviet Union has led to the US control of the global system and international relations. This provides the US with many opportunities to defend its own national interests globally and to challenge international legitimacy through marginalizing the role of the United Nations and ignoring the international law. Power and interests become the main characteristics of interstate interactions.

Globalization and economy: Globalization as an economic movement has significant effect on national and global economies. Although many trade blocs were established and many industrial and economic nations have emerged as a response to this process, the rules of this process have contributed to the collapse of many national economies. The emergence of what can be called ‘electronic trade’ though the Internet is another negative aspect of globalization. Piracy is also reinforced by this process.

Globalization and science: Although globalization contributes remarkably to new scientific revolutions in many fields including computer and space sciences, these revolutions are accompanied by new sciences that may be used for immoral purposes or to damage the dignity of man whom the Almighty God honors. Example of these sciences is Genetic Engineering Science, which leads to the emergence of Cloning Science.

Globalization and societal structures: The free economy and the development of technology have negative impact on laborers. As known, twenty percent of the world population is producing the needs of all population in this world, while most of the rest 80% are unable to find a suitable source of income. This is serous because underprivileged people are expected to revolt against their bad conditions. This is possible with the growing decline of state’s power to the favor of private sectors, on one hand, and to the growing decrease of the governmental expenditures on social and public services such as health, education etc., on the other. In this, globalization is a source of social instability and class disparity. 

IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON POLITICS

 Globalization by removing geographical, political and cultural borders, and also by pass dame of time and place has changed attitudes, behavior and action of individuals, nations, states and even socio-political structure of societies. In politics scope, globalization has created several evolutions which some of them are as follows; 

1-Globalization and Democracy 

The phenomenon of globalization as a new paradigm, in influence of economic evolutions, has excellent changed human societies from half century past. In late decades, the scientific and academic societies, especially political science, and some other matters like political systems, states, and democracy, has conceptual redefined by globalization. Some main questions about the democracy and globalization are: which form of democracy did influence by globalization? Did ideology of democracy, or political culture of democracy influenced by globalization? Or democracy is as a governance pattern? Democracy is Grecian word and derives of "kratia" and "demos", in mean, "home rule". Mainly there are two classes definition of democracy: 

Outlook that argued democracy as a governance method. 

Outlook that argues democracy is as values.

 Based on different goals and definitions of democracy, there are many various models of democracy. According to mass direct or indirect participation, it run around to direct and indirect or participative democracy. And according to isonomy and equality of economy, there are liberal and social democracy and social democracy run around to industrial and corporate democracy. And according to different geographical scopes, and many religions and races groups, the indirect democracy disports to current democracy and multiracial and associative democracy. 

The effective of globalization on democracy is not limited to special scope. Some thoughtful beliefs that globalization effects on all foundations of democracy such as: freedom of expression, freedom of belief and religion, civil community, citizenship rights, confine of state activity, legitimacy of governors, freedom of press etc . In principle there are some ways and methods of effective of globalization on democracy that follows:

  Evolution on concept of democracy: Democracy, in influenced of globalization, has more changed in relative to its traditional concept. Democracy in its new concept is not just participation process, election, representation, reign of low, and political and urban freedom. But it should be define as: measure of formation civil institutions in societies and its combine on global culture. In "David Held" opinion, democracy in globalization age, include societies that closed in borders. However they utilize similar communication and world order. 

2- Globalization and Nation-State 

The most important political scope of globalization is its impact on nation-state as a historic phenomenon. Some are believe that political globalization is salvation of state domination. It means that globalization reduces the authority and autonomy of states. Other groups are arguing that globalization phenomenon causes downfall of nation-state. In contrast, some writers believe that globalization not only doesn’t waken nation-state but, in globalization age, the central role of states will be preservation and state as a main factor of organizer will stable. In other words, in globalization age the method of governance will be completely difference. So, whether we accept the realism outlook such as David Held talking about formation of global state, but the fact is that the nation-state has been seriously influenced by globalization, and have been formed new issues in political scope by it. 

3- Globalization and New Political Actors

 Another impact of globalization on politics is appearance new political actors in national, regional and global scopes, and change in location of some old and traditional actors. These new actors, in inside of state, are visible in form of groups, ethnic and regional organizations, and in transnational dimension, they are action in form of intergovernmental international organizations and nongovernmental international organizations. The important point is non historic growth of new different organizations, especially transnational organizations in late of 20th and beginning of 21th. The number of intergovernmental organizations has increased from 37 at the beginning of 20th century to 300 at its end. The new actors due to have mass capital and influence on politics and behaviors of other actors and even states are post important. 

4- Globalization and Human Rights 

One of positive consequences of globalization is more attention to human rights as most important common issue of human society in nowadays world. The global culture of human rights emphasizes on this issue that everyone in different dimensions and levels has right which should be immunity of unjustifiable disturbance of states and global power. globalization process have converted the more attention to global human rights as a general and humanity certain right requests in the world wid. Nowadays, the issues such as illegal of killing, forbidden of torment, forbidden of child forcible working, battle against terrorism, peaceful solution of discards, enjoyment of justly judicial system, enjoyment minority of hygienic and education and welfare, freedom of expression and belief and action, are as general values of human rights and are acceptance for all cultures . 

 5- Globalization and New political culture 

Another main and important output and consequences of globalization is its influence on political culture in national and international level. Gabriel Almond defines political culture as set of norms, values, emotions, information and political technique. 

But in globalization age due to reduction influence of states, the political culture of people has changed independently. Globalization has created a kind of common political culture among people in the world, and has caused similarity in political culture. So, common values like pace, justice, equality, freedom, democracy, competition and free election as common humanity values, are publishing by globalization. Nowadays, the insight and knowledge of people about political system and political behavior of governors have been changed, and they only and without any fear are evaluating the function of system officers. 

6- Globalization and Increase of interdependence 

The extension of globalization of has caused accession among nations, and increase interdependence of different societies. Jims Rosina believes that if in the past, the global politics problems have been solved by interaction of states, but now there are complex problems which are out of states capacity. Some of them are such 146 as; air pollution, financial crisis, narcotic, terrorism, aids, despotism and violence in some political system, flood, earth quake, and etc. So, it is clear that the solution of these problems are out capacity of singular of states, and cooperation of formal actors and trans national organizations are most necessity. Hence, globalization has created and broadcasted nongovernmental international organizations and international actors, and increased their independence.

 7- Globalization and Freedom 

There is question that how freedom and globalization fit together. According to some research it funded that they work together quite nicely. There is a strong positive relationship between globalization and political freedom. Globalization may also be one of the best ways of keeping politicians honest, as more globalized countries have far lower levels of perceived corruption, as measured by transparency International. Some countries may help foster increased political rights and civil liberties for their citizens. Furthermore, increased integration may lead to the adoption of higher international standards for transparency, which in turn would discourage corruption and increase government efficiency.

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