Human Rights, What are the Basic Human Rights

Human rights are rights inherent to all human beings. They define relationships between individuals and power structures, especially the State. Human rights delimit State power and, at the same time, require States to take positive measures ensuring an environment that enables all people to enjoy their human rights. History in the past 250 years has been shaped by the struggle to create such an environment. Starting with the French and American revolutions in the late eighteenth century, the idea of human rights has driven many revolutionary movements for empowerment and for control over the wielders of power, governments in particular.

Human Rights, What are the Basic Human Rights
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Human rights are moral principles or norms that describe certain standards of human behaviour, and are regularly protected as legal rights in municipal and international law. Everyone born in this world have human rights that must be protected by the law


Following are the characteristics/tents of human rights;

Universal in that they belong to all people equally regardless of status. All people are born free and equal in dignity and rights. 

Inalienable in that they may not be taken away or transferred. People still have human rights even when their governments violate those rights.

Interconnected because the fulfilment or violation of one right affects the fulfilment of all other rights. 

Indivisible as no right can be treated in isolation. No one right is more important than another. 

Non-discriminatory in that human rights should be respected without distinction, exclusion, restriction, or preference based on race, colour, age, national or ethnic origin, language, religion, sex, or any other status, which has the purpose or effect of impairing the enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms. 


According to Universal Declaration of Human Rights by United Nations, following are the basic human rights provided to every person;

All human beings are free and equal:

 All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

No Discrimination:

Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs. 

Right to Life:

Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person. 

No slavery:

No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.

No torture and inhuman treatment:

No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. 

Same right to use law:

Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law. 

Equal before the law: 

All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation and against any incitement to such discrimination. 

Right to treated fair by court:

Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law. 

No unfair detainment

No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile. 

Right to trial:

Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him. 

Innocent until proved guilty:

Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence. No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed. 

Right to privacy:

No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, or to attacks upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks. 

Freedom to movement and residence:

Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state. Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country. 

Right to Asylum: 

Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution. This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations. 

Right to Nationality:

Everyone has the right to a nationality. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality 

Rights to marry and have family: 

Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution. Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses. The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.

Right to own things: 

Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property. 

Freedom of thought and religion:

Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance. 

Freedom of opinion and expression: 

Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers. 

Right to Assemble: 

Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association. No one may be compelled to belong to an association. 

Right to Democracy: 

Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives. Everyone has the right of equal access to public service in his country. 

Right to social Security:

Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality. 

Right to Work:

Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment. Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work. Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests. 

Right to rest and holiday:

Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay. 

Right of Social Service: 

Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, and housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control. Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children shall enjoy the same social protection. 

Right to Education:

Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit. 

Right of Cultural and Art:

Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits. Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author. 

Freedom Around the World:

Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized. 

Subject to Law: 

Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible. In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a democratic society. 



 Nothing in Universal Declaration of Human Rights by United Nations, may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein.

So those are all Universal Declaration of Human Rights list by United Nations General Assembly. All universal human rights list above commonly known as 30 basic human rights that must be respected and protected by the law.


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