What is Socialization in sociology Socialization Pdf


What is socialization?


The human infant comes into the world as biological organism with animal needs.

What is Socialization in sociology Socialization Pdf
What is Socialization

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He is gradually moulded into a social being and he learns social ways of acting and feeling. Without this process of moulding, the society could not continue itself, nor could culture exist, nor could the individual become a person. This process of moulding is called ‘Socialization’. It is through the process of socialization that the new born individual is moulded into a social being and men find their fulfilment within society. Man becomes what he is by socialization


Definitions of Socialization:

Bogardus defines socialization as the “process of working together, of developing group responsibility, of being guided by the welfare needs of others.”

According to Ogburn, “Socialization is the process by which the individual learns to conform to the norms of the group.

Ross defined socialization as “the development of we feel in associates and their growth in capacity and will to act together.” Through the process of socialization, the individual becomes a social person and attains personality.


Functions of Socialization


        It converts humans from biological being to social being

        It contributes in personality development

        It helps to become disciplined

        It helps to perform different roles

        It establishes knowledge and skills

        It contributes in the stability of social order

        It transmits culture from one generation to other

        It creates right aspirations in social life


Agencies/agents of socialization

Agents of socialization help a person to get socially involved and gain acceptance in the society he/she lives in. These agents form the very base of the social order, and it is with their aid that an individual and society interact with each other.

1.     The Family

2.     The School

3.     The Playmates, peer group or Friends:

4.     Work place socialization

5.     The Mass and Social Media

6.     Religion

7.     The Books

8.     The State

Functions of family in socialization

The parents or family are the first to socialize the child. They are not only closely related to the child but physically also they are nearer to him than others. From the parents he learns his speech and languages. He is taught societal morality. He learns respect for persons in authority.

In the family he learns a number of civic virtues (public moralities).


Functions of school in socialization

The school is the second agency of socialization. In the school the child gets his education which moulds his ideas and attitudes. A good education can make the child a good citizen, while a bad education can turn him into a criminal. Education is of great importance in socialization. A well-planned system of education can produce socialized persons.

In school children are under the care and supervision of adults who are not relatives. For the first time, many of the child’s relationships with other people are impersonal .rewards and punishments are based on performance rather than affection. Although a mother may cherish any picture that her child creates, a teacher evaluates her students by more objective standards. Slowly children are taught to be less dependent emotionally on their parents.



Work place socialization:

As the individual grows into an adult person, work becomes part of life individual join workplace after completion his/her schooling. Occupation brings about reality in front of the person as the individual earns for survival to fulfil his ambition.

Ø  Occupational socialization deals with the people as well as with the field.

Ø  Personals goals and basic needs are fulfilled

Ø  The individual learns to cooperate, adjust with others at the work place.

Ø  Discipline continues and if she/he violates the rules it may cost the loss of job.



The Mass and Social Media

The mass media are impersonal communications aimed at a vast audience. The term “media” comes from Latin meaning “middle”. Suggesting that media serve to connect people. 

Mass media arise as communication technology (first newspapers and then radio, television, films and the internet) spreads information on a mass scale.

Mass media are means of communication designed to reach the general population. They include such things as




        Magazines Movies

        Internet etc.




Religion has been an important factor in society. In the early society religion provided a bond of unity. Though in modern society the importance of religion has diminished, yet it continues to mould our beliefs and ways of life. In every family some or the other religious practices are observed on one or the other occasion. The child sees his parents going to the Masjid/ temple and performing religious ceremonies. He listens to religious sermons which may determine his course of life and shape his ideas.

The Books

In literate societies another important agency of socialisation is the printed word in books and magazines. Our cultural world—experiences and knowledge, values and beliefs, superstitions and prejudices—is expressed in words.

The State

The state is an authoritarian agency. It makes laws for the people and lays down the modes of conduct expected of them. The people have compulsorily to obey these laws. If they fail to adjust their behaviour in accordance with the laws of the state, they may be punished for such failure. Thus, the state also moulds our behaviour.


Problems in Socialization agents:

One of the reasons for the increasing crime in society is the failure of the socializing agencies to properly and adequately socialize the child. The modern family faces a crisis today and suffers from parental maladjustment which adversely affects the process of socialization. The educational system is full of draw backs.

The school is no longer a temple of education. It is a place where boys and girls learn more of drugs and alcohol and less of cultural heritage. The onslaught of urbanization has abolished the neighbourhood system and snatched playmates from the child who now plays with electronic games than with the neighbourhood children.’ Similarly, religion has a lesser hold in an urban social and state authority is more disobeyed than obeyed.

It need not be said that to have socialized being these agencies should function in an efficient manner. The modern society has to solve several problems of socialization and for the purpose it has to make these agencies more active and effective.

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